Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences

Paper Details

Research Paper | March 5, 2022

| Download

Philippine ethnobotanicals inhibit virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus

Gene Beniece B. Limos, Wilson R. Jacinto, Khristina G. Judan Cruz

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.13(5), 178-187, November 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.2.1-20

Certification: IJB 2018 [Generate Certificate]


A new perspective in the application of natural compounds as therapeutic agents are presented by quorum sensing inhibitors to combat pathogenic diseases without developing antimicrobial resistance.  The study evaluated the quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) activities of ethanolic extracts of selected Philippine ethnobotanicals against Staphylococcus aureus PNCM 1582. Ethnobotanicals tested were Bidens pilosa, Cestrum nocturnum, Sarcandra glabra, Oreocnide trinervis, Pittosporum pentandrum, Lipang-daga (no known scientific name), Derris elliptica, Alstonia scholaris, Ageratina adenophora and Ayapana triplinervis Extracts were subjected to assays on the phenotypic expression of virulence factors of S. aureus: DNase and α-hemolysin. C. nocturnum, O. trinervis and A. triplinervis showed inhibition of the phenotypic expression of DNase in S. aureus indicating the presence of QSI.C. nocturnum, S. glabra, O. trinervis, Lipang-daga, D. elliptica, A. scholaris, A. adenophora  and A. triplinervis ethanolic plant extracts caused QSI resulting in the absence of α-hemolysin production in the plate culture.  Findings of both virulence assays confirm the QSI activities of the ethnobotanicals against the virulence factors in S. aureus.  Thus, these ethnobotanicals display potential for the development of anti-quorum sensing drugs to combat bacterial infections without developing resistance.


Copyright © 2021
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Philippine ethnobotanicals inhibit virulence factors in Staphylococcus aureus

Abe R, Ohtani K. 2013. An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants and Traditional Therapies on Batan Island, the Philippines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 145(2), 554-565.

Adonizio AL, Downum K, Bennett BC, Mathee K. 2006. Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of Medicinal Plants in Southern Florida. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 105(3), 427-435.

Antunes LC, Ferreira RB, Buckner MM, Finlay BB. 2010. Quorum Sensing in Bacterial Virulence. Microbiology 156, 2271-2282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.038794-0

Asif M, Acharya M. 2012. Quorum Sensing: A Nobel Target for Antibacterial Agents. Avicenna Journal of Medicine 2(4), 97-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2231-0770.110743

Bowden MG, Chen W, Singvall J, Xu Y, Peacock SJ, Valtulina V, Speziale P, Hook M. 2005. Identification and Preliminary Characterization of Cell-Wall-Anchored Proteins of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Microbiology 151, 1453–1464.

Brown AE. 2011. Benson: Microbiological Applications Lab Manual. 8th Ed. The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Cowan MM. 1999. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1999; 12(4), 564-582.

Domingo D, Lopez M. 2003. Plantas Con Acción Antimicrobiana (Plants with Antimicrobial Action). Revista Espaňola de Quimioterapia. 16(4), 385-393.

Foster T. 1996. Chapter 12: Staphylococcus. Medical Microbiology. 4th Edition. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Retrieved on June 12, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8448/report=printable

Gbadamosi IT. 2012. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Six Ethnobotanicals Used in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases in Nigeria. Botany Research International 5(4), 83-89, 2012 ISSN 2221-3635.

Ghosh R, Tiwary BK, Kumar A, Chakraborty R. 2014. Guava Leaf Extract Inhibits Quorum-Sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum Induced Lysis of Human Hepatoma Cells: Whole Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Differential Gene Expression 9, 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107703.g001

Gordon RJ, Lowy FD. 2008. Pathogenesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 46, S350-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/533591

Hong KW, Koh CL, Sam CK, Yin WF, Chan FG. 2012. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signaling Confusion. Sensors 12, 4661–4696.

Kateete DP, Kimani CN,Katabazi FA, Okeng A, Okee MS, Nanteza A, Joloba ML, Najjuka FC. 2010. Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol Salt Agar Improve the Efficiency of the Tube Coagulase Test. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 9, 23.

Koh C, Sam C, Yin W, Tan LY, Krishnan T, Chong YM, Chan K. 2013. Plant-Derived Natural Products as Sources of Anti-Quorum Sensing Compounds. Sensors  13, 6217-6228. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s130506217

Lebeau C, Vandenesch F, Greenland T, Novick RP, Etienne J. 1994. Coagulase Expression in Staphylococcus aureus is Positively and Negatively Modulated by an agr-Dependent Mechanism. Journal of Bacteriology 176(17), 5534–5536.

Liu GY. 2009. Molecular Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus Infection. Pediatric Research. 65(5), 2.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1203/PDR.0b013e31819dc44d

Madigan MT, Martinko JM, Stahl DA, Clark DP. 2012. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 13th Edition. San Francisco, California: Benjamin Cummings.

Massey RC, Horsburgh MJ, Lina G, Hook M, Recker M. 2006. The Evolution and Maintenance of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus: A Role for Host-to-Host Transmission. Nature Reviews. Microbiology 4, 953-958.

Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, Coppola R. 2013. Quorum Sensing and Phytochemicals. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14(6), 12607-12619. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms10612607

Novick RP, Geisinger E. 2008. Quorum Sensing in Staphylococci. Annual Review in Genetics 42, 541–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.genet.42.110807.091640

Novick RP, Ross HF, Projan SJ, Kornblum J, Kreiswirth B, Moghazeh S. 1993. Synthesis of Staphylococcal Virulence Factors is Controlled by a Regulatory RNA Molecule. EMBO Journal 12(10), 3967-3975.

Ortez JH. 2005. Disk Diffusion Testing. M. Coyle (Ed.) Manual of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Page 39.

Otto M, Surmuth R, Vuong C, Jung G, Gotz F. 1999. Inhibition of Virulence Factor Expression in Staphylococcus aureus by the Staphylococcus epidermisagr Pheromone and Derivatives. FEBS Letters 450, 257-262.

Quave CL, Plano LRW, Bennet BC. 2011. Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants. Planta Med. 77(2), 188-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1250145

Rasmussen TB, Givskov M. 2006. Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: a Bargain of Effects. Microbiology 152, 895-904.

Rezai A, Oyong GG, Borja VB, Inoue M, Abe T, Tamamura R, Nagatsuka H, Setsu K, Buery RR. 2011. Molecular Screening of Anti-Quorum Sensing Capability of Salvadora persica on Enterococcus faecalis. Journal of Hard Tissue Biology 20(2), 115-124. https://www.academia.edu/attachments/26054198/download_file.

Rice LB. 2008. Federal Funding for the Study of Antimicrobial Resistance in Nosocomial Pathogens: No ESKAPE. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 197(8), 1079–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/533452

Rutherford ST, Bassler BL. 2012. Bacterial Quorum Sensing: Its Role in Virulence and Possibilities for Its Control. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine perspectives in medicine.cshlp.org 2,012427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a012427

Senior K. 2014. What are antibiotic resistant bacteria? Retrieved on March 21, 2015 from http://www.typesofbacteria.co.uk/what-are-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria.html

Song C, Ma H, Zhao Q, Song S, Jia Z. 2012. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Activity by Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology S7, 001. http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2157-7471.S7-001

Srisawat S. 2007. Effect of Some Thai Medicinal Plant Extracts on Antibacterial Activity of Periodontopathic Bacteria and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Toxicity to Gingival Connective Tissue Fibroblast. Prince of Songkla University. Retrieved from http://kb.psu.ac.th/psukb/handle/2553/1492

Sulatana B, Anwar F, Ashraf M. 2009. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts. Molecules 14, 2167-2180. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14062167

Tamber S, Reyes D, Donegan NP, Schaertzman JD, Cheung AL, Memmi G. 2010. The Staphylococcus-Specific Gene rsr Represses agr and Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus. Infection and Immunity 78(10), 4384-4391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00401-10

Tan LY, Yin WF, Chan KG. 2013. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetumgnemon – Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties. Sensors 13, 3975-3985. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s130303975

Thoendel M, Kavanaugh JS, Flack CE, Horswill AR. 2011. Peptide Signaling in the Staphylococci. Chemical Reviews 111(1), 117–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr100370n

Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. 2011. Phytochemical Screening and Extraction: A Review. Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia. 1(1), 98-106.

Undan JR, Cruz KJ, Gandalera EE, Abella EA, David ES, Valentino MJG, Reyes RG. 2014. Ethnobotanical Studies on Medicinal and Toxic Plants Among the Three Tribes in Luzon, Philippines. 36th Annual Scientific Meeting. National Academy of Science and Technology (NAST Philippines).

Uwaezuoke J, Aririatu L. 2004. A Survey of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains from Clinical Sources in Owerri. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 8(1),  67-69.

Voyich JM, Bruaghton KR, Studervant DE, Whitney AR, Said-Salim B, Porcella SF, Long RD, Dorward DW, Gardner DJ, Kreiswirth BN, Musser JM, De Leo FR. 2005. Insights Into Mechanisms Used by Staphylococcus aureus to Avoid Destruction by Human Neutrophils. The Journal of Immunology 175, 3907-3919.

Wang GX. 2010. In vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Five Alkaloids from Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim) Fedde Against Dactylogyrus intermedius in Carassius auratus. Veterinary Parasitology 171, 305–313.

Watkins RR, David MZ, Satala RA. 2012. Current Concepts on the Virulence Mechanisms of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Medical Microbiology 61, 1179-1193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.043513-0

Yarwood JM, Schlievert PM. 2003. Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus Infections. Journal of Clinical Investigation 112(11), 1620–1625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI200320442

Yarwood JM, Bartles DJ, Volper M, Greenberg EP. 2004. Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms. Journal Of Bacteriology 186(6), 1838–1850 http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.186.6.1838–1850

Yeo SSM, Tham FY. 2006. Anti-quorum Sensing and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Commonly Used in South-East Asia. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 8(1), 11-20 ISSN: 2231-7538.

Zahin M, Hasan S, Aqil F, Ahmad Khan MS, Husain Ahmad I. 2010. Screening of Certain Medicinal Plants From India for Their Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 48, 1219-1224.

Zarringhalam M, Zarringhalam J, Shadnoush C, Safaeyand F, Tekiehb E. 2013. Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNAse activity of Staphylococcus aureus. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 12(3), 363-369.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background