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Hepatic encephalopathy and its management

Nadia Shah, Shaista Imran, Shazia yousaf, Shahzaib, Fatima, Bakhtawar Urooj, Nadia Mehreen, Bushra Aziz, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Muhammad Saleem, Ghazala Taj, Umbreen Zafar

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Int. J. Biosci.20(6), 45-64, June 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.2.1-20

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Abstract

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a symptom of decompensated cirrhosis that affects up to half of all individuals with the disease. Approximately 23,000 inpatients are diagnosed with (HE) each year, and internists and subspecialists are frequently responsible for their care. In recent years, the treatment of hospitalized HE patients has evolved. Induction and maintenance of remission are two aspects of treatment. Infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, medicines, or other factors trigger the majority of instances of serious HE. Secondary triggers should be considered in all cases and in most individuals, treatment should begin with a non-absorbable disaccharide. In patients who do not respond to lactulose, rifaximin might be used. Because of its side effects, neomycin is a less preferable option to rifaximin. For patients who do not respond to disaccharides or non-absorbable antibiotics, other therapy such as zinc, l-ornithine–l-aspartate, and branched-chain amino acids can be considered.

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Hepatic encephalopathy and its management

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