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Heavy metal contents, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of Astragalus eremophilus

Hameed Ur Rehman, Aftab Ahmad, Dr Zahidullah Khan, Baharullah Khattak, Nisar Ahmad, Mobeen Kalsoom, Haleema Sadia, Najeeb Ullah, Yasir Ihtisham, Summiya Kanwal

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.13(3), 73-88, September 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.2.1-20

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The aim of the present study was to evaluate heavy metal contents, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of Astragalus eremophilus collected from village Inzer Banda District Karak Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. During December 2015 to April 2016. For Heavy metal analysis, the plant sample was oven dried, grinded into pieces and digested in perchloric acid and nitric acid. The digested sample was analyzed for selected heavy metals like Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in mg/kg. Astragalus eremophilus was screened qualitatively for phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, tannins and saponins. For antibacterial activity agar well diffusion method was used while for antifungal activity tube dilution method was adopted.All the analyzed elements were found below the permissible limits except for Chromium which was noted above the permissible limit (0.06mg/kg). The medicinal plant astragalus eremophilus was found rich in carbohydrates, flavonids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins but not in glycosides, when screened for phytochemicals. For antibacterial activity, four strains of bacteria were used, one strain of gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and three strains of Gram negative bacteria Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. For antifungal activity four strains of fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizoctonia solani were tested. The result showed that all the fractions of A. eremophilus were active against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. The highest activity (21.67±1.117) was shown by an ethyl acetate fraction against all the selected bacteria pathogens. The lowest activity (16.00±0.912) was shown by water fraction against the selected bacterial strains. All the fractions showed significant activity against tested fungi except n-butanol fraction which showed no inhibition to any of the selected fungal pathogens. It was concluded that A. eremophilus possesses permissible limit of all heavy metals except chromium, which was above the permissible limit(0.06)mg/kg. The plant showed a high profile of phytochemicals which may be correlated with the potential antimicrobial activity of the plant extract/ fractions. The obtained data were analyzed through statistics Ver.9, by applying one way Anova   simple t tests, p valve less than 0.05 was considered significant.


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Heavy metal contents, phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of Astragalus eremophilus

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