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Determination of heavy elements content of some sudanese medicinal Cassia species using X-RAY fluorescence spectroscopy

Mustafa Siddig Mohamed EL-Kheir, Eiman Mohammed Ali Mustafa, Sawsan Hussein Karsani, Hatil Hashim EL-Kamali

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Int. J. Biosci.12(2), 247-252, February 2018

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.2.1-20

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Abstract

Cassia species have wide distribution in tropical and subtropical regions and medicinally used worldwide. The concentration levels (ppm) of selected toxic trace elements (Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Nb) were determined in some important Cassia species that most commonly used in the Sudanese Traditional Medicine. The plants namely, Cassia senna, Cassia tora and Cassia occidentalis were collected from different locations in the Central Sudan (EL-Hassaya in north central Sudan; Um Rawaba and EL-Obeid in west central Sudan).  X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy was employed for the estimation of studied heavy trace elements. The element contents in the samples were found at different levels. The highest mean levels (ppm) of Ti (229 ppm), Cr (98ppm), Fe (489 ppm), Br (38.4ppm), Pb (6.4 ppm), Sr (189 ppm) and Zr (14 ppm) were found in Cassia tora fermented leaves (EL-Obeid sample) while those of Mn (61.2 ppm), Cu (9.1 ppm), Zn (174 ppm) and Nb (1.0 ppm) were found in Cassia occidentalis roasted seeds (Um Rawaba sample). The result also showed that Cassia senna (EL-Hassaya sample, fruit pulp) had the highest content of Rb (17 ppm). These results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials in both folk remedies and pharmaceutical industry.

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